Recent Changes

Tuesday, June 9

  1. page Global Warming, Myth? edited ... {AG.jpg} {file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/GRONOW%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image002.jpg} {…
    ...
    {AG.jpg}
    {file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/GRONOW%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image002.jpg} {file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/GRONOW%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image004.jpg}
    {http://www.pewclimate.org/docUploads/images/Historical-Emissions.preview.JPG}
    The two graphs are very similar, providing for convincing evidence, although their always is still the chance of a coincidence. Scientists have a great deal of evidence to support that the earths Gravitational poles switch every 500,000-700,000 years, causing them to be weak for a brief period of time ,in turn causing the earth to gain in temperature. This gain in temperature has been going on before human have even been on the planet.
    Bibliography
    ...
    2009 <http://http:www.beyondthematthemovie.com/_warming.jpg>.
    Biocab. ??? 6 Feb. 2009 <http://http:biocab.org/‌Global_Warmings_and_Coolings_Since_Medieval_Age.jpg>.
    ...
    2009 <http://http:www.careglobalwarming.com/warming.jpg>.
    Emission Graph. 30 Jan. 2009 <http://http:polardiscovery.whoi.edu/_graph-lg.jpg>.
    ...
    2009 <http://http:www.livescience.com‌_warming_changes.html>.
    Stop

    Stop
    Global warming
    ...
    2009 <http://http:www.stopglobalwarming.org/_learnmore.asp>.
    Stop

    Stop
    Global Warming.
    ...
    2009 <http://www.globalwarming.org/‌/‌/‌/warming-101-science/>.
    Wikipedia.

    Wikipedia.
    Wikipedia. 3
    ...
    2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org//‌Global_Warming>.
    http://www.pewclimate.org/docUploads/images/Historical-Emissions.preview.JPG- Historical Global Emissions Graph
    (view changes)
    11:08 am
  2. page Global Warming, Myth? edited ... {AG.jpg} {file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/GRONOW%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image002.jpg} {…
    ...
    {AG.jpg}
    {file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/GRONOW%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image002.jpg} {file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/GRONOW%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image004.jpg}
    ...
    the planet.
    Bibliography
    Beyond the math movies. 12 Feb. 2009 <http://http:www.beyondthematthemovie.com/_warming.jpg>.
    Biocab. ??? 6 Feb. 2009 <http://http:biocab.org/‌Global_Warmings_and_Coolings_Since_Medieval_Age.jpg>.
    Care global warming. 12 Feb. 2009 <http://http:www.careglobalwarming.com/warming.jpg>.
    Emission Graph. 30 Jan. 2009 <http://http:polardiscovery.whoi.edu/_graph-lg.jpg>.
    Livescience. 21 June 2005. 6 Feb. 2009 <http://http:www.livescience.com‌_warming_changes.html>.
    Stop Global warming . 2009. 30 Jan. 2009 <http://http:www.stopglobalwarming.org/_learnmore.asp>.
    Stop Global Warming. 11 Feb. 2009 <http://www.globalwarming.org/‌/‌/‌/warming-101-science/>.
    Wikipedia. Wikipedia. 3 Jan. 2009. 23 Jan. 2009 <http://en.wikipedia.org//‌Global_Warming>.
    http://www.pewclimate.org/docUploads/images/Historical-Emissions.preview.JPG- Historical Global Emissions Graph

    (view changes)
    11:05 am
  3. page Global Warming, Myth? edited ... MYTH No. 3: The Earth is warming because of us! For this Myth, the side the believes in Globa…
    ...
    MYTH No. 3: The Earth is warming because of us!
    For this Myth, the side the believes in Global warming says that we are causing the earth to warm due to global co2 emissions. Here I have a graph of global co2 emissions compared to global temperature fluctuations.
    {AG.jpg}
    {file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/GRONOW%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image002.jpg} {file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/GRONOW%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image004.jpg}
    The two graphs are very similar, providing for convincing evidence, although their always is still the chance of a coincidence. Scientists have a great deal of evidence to support that the earths Gravitational poles switch every 500,000-700,000 years, causing them to be weak for a brief period of time ,in turn causing the earth to gain in temperature. This gain in temperature has been going on before human have even been on the planet.
    (view changes)
    11:04 am
  4. page Global Warming, Myth? edited ... MYTH No. 2: There will be storms, flooded coasts and huge disruptions in climate! TRUTH:The …
    ...
    MYTH No. 2: There will be storms, flooded coasts and huge disruptions in climate!
    TRUTH:The side that believes in global warming says that global warming causes a greater quantity in natural disasters, and increases the magnitude of them. Here are the facts: in the 60’s, the US spent 40 billion dollars on natural disasters, in the 70’s the U.S. spent 50 billion dollars on natural disasters, in the 80’s the U.S spent 80 billion dollars, and in the 90’s, the U.S. spent 280 billion dollars. These facts look very convincing from a glance, but it is quite possible that the reason these numbers increase is because of inefficient spending, or other reasons like that. As for the large increase from the 80’s to the 90’s, it is very unlikely that is the whole case, and it is more likely that by chance a larger natural disaster, that is on the rarer side, hit the U.S.
    MYTH No. 3: The Earth is warming because of us!
    For this Myth, the side the believes in Global warming says that we are causing the earth to warm due to global co2 emissions. Here I have a graph of global co2 emissions compared to global temperature fluctuations.
    {file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/GRONOW%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image002.jpg} {file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/GRONOW%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image004.jpg}
    The two graphs are very similar, providing for convincing evidence, although their always is still the chance of a coincidence. Scientists have a great deal of evidence to support that the earths Gravitational poles switch every 500,000-700,000 years, causing them to be weak for a brief period of time ,in turn causing the earth to gain in temperature. This gain in temperature has been going on before human have even been on the planet.

    {Disastergraph2.jpg}
    MYTH No. 3: The Earth is warming because of us!
    For this Myth, the side the believes in Global warming says that we are causing the earth to warm due to global co2 emissions. Here I have a graph of global co2 emissions compared to global temperature fluctuations.
    {file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/GRONOW%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image002.jpg} {file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/GRONOW%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image004.jpg}
    The two graphs are very similar, providing for convincing evidence, although their always is still the chance of a coincidence. Scientists have a great deal of evidence to support that the earths Gravitational poles switch every 500,000-700,000 years, causing them to be weak for a brief period of time ,in turn causing the earth to gain in temperature. This gain in temperature has been going on before human have even been on the planet.

    (view changes)
    11:02 am
  5. page Global Warming, Myth? edited ... TRUTH: Will there be much bigger disruptions in climate? For this we have to look at our data.…
    ...
    TRUTH: Will there be much bigger disruptions in climate? For this we have to look at our data.
    MYTH No. 3: The Earth is warming because of us!
    ...
    of it.
    MYTH No. 1: The Earth is warming!
    TRUTH: The earth’s temperature has constantly been rising since 1880. It has risen as much as .5 degrees Celsius in a year. The total temperature change from 1880- 1980 is roughly .9 degrees Celsius. Is this proof of global warming? No it is not clear proof. You see, the earth is constantly going through cooling and heating cycles that can last hundreds of years. To this the other side says that we are simply adding to the change that the cycles cause by releasing greenhouse gasses such as co2.
    ...
    MYTH No. 2: There will be storms, flooded coasts and huge disruptions in climate!
    TRUTH:The side that believes in global warming says that global warming causes a greater quantity in natural disasters, and increases the magnitude of them. Here are the facts: in the 60’s, the US spent 40 billion dollars on natural disasters, in the 70’s the U.S. spent 50 billion dollars on natural disasters, in the 80’s the U.S spent 80 billion dollars, and in the 90’s, the U.S. spent 280 billion dollars. These facts look very convincing from a glance, but it is quite possible that the reason these numbers increase is because of inefficient spending, or other reasons like that. As for the large increase from the 80’s to the 90’s, it is very unlikely that is the whole case, and it is more likely that by chance a larger natural disaster, that is on the rarer side, hit the U.S.
    MYTH No. 3: The Earth is warming because of us!
    For this Myth, the side the believes in Global warming says that we are causing the earth to warm due to global co2 emissions. Here I have a graph of global co2 emissions compared to global temperature fluctuations.
    {file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/GRONOW%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image002.jpg} {file:///C:/DOCUME%7E1/GRONOW%7E1/LOCALS%7E1/Temp/msohtml1/01/clip_image004.jpg}
    The two graphs are very similar, providing for convincing evidence, although their always is still the chance of a coincidence. Scientists have a great deal of evidence to support that the earths Gravitational poles switch every 500,000-700,000 years, causing them to be weak for a brief period of time ,in turn causing the earth to gain in temperature. This gain in temperature has been going on before human have even been on the planet.

    {Disastergraph2.jpg}
    (view changes)
    11:01 am

Wednesday, June 3

  1. page Video Games Affect on Americans edited ... Video games have been a huge part of modern society. Though people believe that video games ar…
    ...
    Video games have been a huge part of modern society. Though people believe that video games are a harmless topic, they have a huge effect and influence on today’s youth.
    One major negative effect of videogames is violence. About 89 % of videogames made contain some sort of violence and are often a child’s favorite type of game. It had been proven that violent video games increase aggressive behavior. When a child plays a video game and sees that the game rewards this kind of behavior, the child is most likely to repeat it and becomes tolerent of violense. {harry_gf_graph_1.JPG}
    ...
    shows that the majorityalmos 9 out of game10 of games made contain
    {harry_gf_graph_33.JPG}
    This graph shows that the majority of people that play videogames are age 18 - 49
    (view changes)
    11:52 am

Monday, May 25

  1. page Homework- An Unnecessary Responsibility edited ... Solutions Homework should not be assigned on a regular basis. It should be occasional, reser…
    ...
    Solutions
    Homework should not be assigned on a regular basis. It should be occasional, reserved for test studying and for completing unfinished class work. The idea of homework should only be harvested occasionally. The sole assignments that could and should be assigned on a semi-regular basis are reading and long term projects. Another solution, already adopted by some schools across the country, is to extend the school day. If the day were extended to 4:00 PM, by just about 45 minutes, it would result in an extra class period (in most school’s schedules) at the end of the day that could be adopted by any academic subject. The time could be used to finish uncompleted class assignments, while having the opportunity to talk with and receive help from teachers. The majority of students interviewed here at Town School favor the idea of staying at school for an extra hour than going home to do their work.
    Works Cited
    Conroy, Scott. “Will Homework Ban Ease Student Stress?” CBS News. 6 Feb. 2009. CBS News. 6 Feb. 2009 <http://www.cbsnews.com‌/‌/‌‌main2520459.shtml>.
    Garrison, Dean. “Ending the Homework Wars.” The Attention, Behavior & Learning Center. 23 Jan. 2009 <http://www.unboundpotentials.com/.html>.
    “Homework Help.” Meredith Public Library. 22 Jan. 2009. 26 Jan. 2009 <http://www.meredithlibrary.org/mework_help.htm>.
    Kohn, Alfie. The Homework Myth: Why Our Kids Get Too Much of a Bad Thing. Philadelphia: Da Capo Press, August 13, 2007.
    Sharp, C., W. Keys, and P. Benefield. “Review of Studies on Homework.” NFER (National Foundation for Educational Research). 2001. 22 Jan. 2009 <http://www.nfer.ac.uk/areas/datareview-of-studies-on-homework.cfm>.
    Sousa, Richard, and Hanna Skandera. “Homework Pays Off.” Hoover Institution-Hoover Digest. 2009. Standford University. 29 Mar. 2009 [[http://www.hoover.org/‌.html]].

    (view changes)
    4:45 pm
  2. page Homework- An Unnecessary Responsibility edited ... Homework is most effective when it is relevant to learning objectives, appropriate to students…
    ...
    Homework is most effective when it is relevant to learning objectives, appropriate to students’ learning abilities and maturity, engaging, assigned regularly, collected, corrected and reviewed in class, assigned in reasonable and manageable amounts, has well explained directions and is supported by parents.
    Most schools implement this technique in the belief it will build long term success in academic studying and scores. In reality, it offers little more than unnecessary stress and fatigue to students, teachers and parents.
    ...
    or unsubstantiated.
    Because parents do not understand why homework is assigned and complain when too little is allocated, there is a seemingly limitless demand for books that offer help. Such books have titles like: The Homework Solution: Getting Kids to Do Their Homework; Seven Steps to Homework Success; Homework Rules and Homework Tools; Ending the Homework Hassle; How to Help Your Child with Homework; Hassle Free Homework, and so on.
    Clearly this is an issue of severe relevance to just about everyone who’s involved with children- and it’s one that leaves many feeling frustrated, confused, or even angry. But the assumption that homework should, even must, continue to be assigned despite our misgivings is rarely called into question.
    ...
    1) A burden on parents-Gary Natriello, a professor of education at Columbia University’s Teachers College, once wrote a paper supporting the value of homework. He discussed the benefits that students attain and that the task is overall beneficial to learning. Only until his own kids went into elementary school and began to get assignments did he realize how stressful it can be for the parents. “The routine tasks sometimes carry directions that are difficult for two parents with only advanced graduate degrees to understand”, says Natriello. Many mothers and fathers return home each evening from their paid jobs only to serve as homework monitors, a position for which they never applied.
    2) Stress for children- The fact that homework tries kids emotionally is significant. It simultaneously “overwhelms struggling kids and removes joy for high achievers”, says one parent. “Homework for [my son] is work. At the end of a seven hour workday, he’s exhausted. But like a worker on a double shift, he has to keep going”, says another. A study published in 2002 found a direct relationship between how much time high school students spent on homework and the levels of anxiety, depression, anger, and other mood disturbances attributed with stress they experienced.
    ...
    of families.
    In an intriguing study by Wendy Grolnick and her colleagues, third graders and their parents were asked to work together on a homework-like task involving the rhyme scheme of poems. The parents who had heard from the experimenter that their children would soon be tested on the skills became more controlling in their interactions. Later, each child was left alone to tackle similar assignment, and those whose parents had been warned of an evaluation ended up not doing as well. Despite their beliefs, parents’ pressure has no bearing on improved comprehension or skills. In some cases, such as this example, the opposite of the intent results.
    3) Family conflict-In a survey of more than 1,200 parents whose children ranged from kindergarteners to high school seniors, exactly half reported that they had had a serious argument with their child about homework in the past year that involved yelling or crying.
    Even when children are able to keep up, and even when we get along well with our parents, homework reshapes and directs family interactions in ways that we have learned to expect, but are troubling to consider. Leah Wingard, a linguist at the University of California-Los Angeles, videotaped thirty-two families in their homes and then pored over the results to analyze who said what to whom, when, and how. One of the first things she discovered was that when the subject of homework was brought up it was almost always done by the parent(s)-and usually within five minutes of greeting the child. “How can a relationship not be affected when one of the first things out of our mouth is, “So, do you have any homework?” It may be useful to consider what else parents might say to their children after not having seen us all day-what other comments or questions we might experience as more welcoming, more supportive, or even more intellectually engaging”. “Children orient to homework as an organizer of their time, and a gatekeeper from other activities if there is homework to complete.” A main conclusion of the research project was that there are virtually no exchanges that deal with the content of the homework. No parents asked, “So did the assignment help you to understand the topic?” or “What’s your opinion of [the issue you were working on]?” The point of homework to the family isn’t to learn. The objective is much less- to derive real pleasure from learning. It’s something to be finished. “Until the time that it is, it looms large in conversations, an unwelcome guest at the table every night”.
    4) Less time for other activities- There is less opportunity for the kind of leaning that doesn’t involve traditional academic skills. There is less opportunity to read for pleasure, make friends and socialize with them, get some exercise, get some rest, or just be a kid. Students find it hard to join our schools’ sports teams or clubs. Homework consumes the time that should be spent on alternative events. After all, homework is not a fact of life that must be accepted but a policy that can be questioned.
    ...
    of curiosity.
    Phil

    Phil
    Lyons, a
    ...
    accrue points.”
    “It simply reinforces what is already a terrible problem in American’s archaic educational system; it emphasizes reading because there will be a quiz on the reading, it mandates dozens of identical math problems because the test will contain dozens more just like the ones on the homework, and it asks students to respond to end of chapter questions like, “Which country did Napoleon invade in 1812?” All of these tasks are time-consuming, dreary, uninspiring and serve only to kill whatever motivation remains in the students.”
    Lyons immediately noticed that in the absence of homework, “students come in all the time and hand me articles about something we talked about in class or tell me about a news report they saw. When intrigued by a good lesson and given freedom [from homework], they naturally seek out more knowledge.” Because most kids find homework so unappealing, parents and teachers feel compelled to offer praise for doing it- or threaten punitive consequences for failing to do it.
    The Attitudes- Why Do It?
    ...
    all parents.
    Some studies have shown that there is a direct correlation to students’ increasing grade level and to the diminishing exception of homework by parents. This is so presumably because more homework results in more effects on students that parents pick up on.
    ...
    of assignments.
    Homework and Learning Differences
    Homework is the largest, most common issue for children with ADHD. Kids with ADHD present significant problems completing their homework, thus have nightly battles with their parents. They complain about homework being boring-too boring to concentrate. ADHD afflicted students commonly do not understand instructions, and consequently require extreme amounts of help from their parents, who often do not have the time or energy to do so. They also tend to procrastinate to start projects and long term research papers, causing frustration and stress, on part of both the parents and students, as they frantically rush to meet project deadlines.
    Given the aversion kids with ADHD have to doing homework, they occasionally do not even do their homework, or lie about having homework. When the progress reports come out, parents learn about their kids’ poor or failing grades. It is also not uncommon for students with ADHD to forget to turn in the assignments they do turn in.
    Solutions
    ...
    their work.
    {Percent_of_6-8_Year_Olds_who_Reported_Having_Homework_on_a_Given_Day.gif}

    (view changes)
    4:20 pm
  3. page Homework- An Unnecessary Responsibility edited Homework: An Unnecessary Responsibility Griffin H. What is It? Homework. An afterschool activi…
    Homework: An Unnecessary Responsibility
    Griffin H.
    What is It?
    Homework. An afterschool activity assigned to develop intellectual discipline, establish proficient study habits, balance classroom workload, supplement and reinforce material in class. It is intended to serve as a link between home and school. Homework is also used to close achievement gaps between students.
    Homework is most effective when it is relevant to learning objectives, appropriate to students’ learning abilities and maturity, engaging, assigned regularly, collected, corrected and reviewed in class, assigned in reasonable and manageable amounts, has well explained directions and is supported by parents.
    Most schools implement this technique in the belief it will build long term success in academic studying and scores. In reality, it offers little more than unnecessary stress and fatigue to students, teachers and parents.
    The widespread assumption about the benefits of homework-higher achievement and the promotion of such virtues as self-discipline and responsibility-aren’t substantiated by the evidence. Evidence that declares homework as advantageous is equivocal or unsubstantiated.
    Because parents do not understand why homework is assigned and complain when too little is allocated, there is a seemingly limitless demand for books that offer help. Such books have titles like: The Homework Solution: Getting Kids to Do Their Homework; Seven Steps to Homework Success; Homework Rules and Homework Tools; Ending the Homework Hassle; How to Help Your Child with Homework; Hassle Free Homework, and so on.
    Clearly this is an issue of severe relevance to just about everyone who’s involved with children- and it’s one that leaves many feeling frustrated, confused, or even angry. But the assumption that homework should, even must, continue to be assigned despite our misgivings is rarely called into question.
    Consider this article in the November 1937 issue of Parents magazine:
    “If children are not required to learn useless and meaningless things, homework is entirely unnecessary for the learning of common school subjects. But when a school requires the amassing of many facts which have little or no significance to the child, learning is so slow and painful that is school is obliged to turn to the home for help out of the mess the school has created.”
    When schooling becomes departmentalized there is often no coordination among a student’s teachers, which means that each may assign homework without regard to how much other teachers have already given. Such poor planning for a “one hour homework policy” results in a 30-minute per class, with an average of six classes, homework spree in the evening.
    Although the chart below shows that the United States spends an average amount of time on homework, a cross-national comparison published in 2005 revealed that the United States is now “among the most homework-intensive countries in the world for 7th and 8th grade math classes.”

    {Time_Spent_on_Homework_vs._Watching_TV.jpg}
    The Impact
    To sort out the complaints one frequently hears about homework is to identify five basic themes.
    1) A burden on parents-Gary Natriello, a professor of education at Columbia University’s Teachers College, once wrote a paper supporting the value of homework. He discussed the benefits that students attain and that the task is overall beneficial to learning. Only until his own kids went into elementary school and began to get assignments did he realize how stressful it can be for the parents. “The routine tasks sometimes carry directions that are difficult for two parents with only advanced graduate degrees to understand”, says Natriello. Many mothers and fathers return home each evening from their paid jobs only to serve as homework monitors, a position for which they never applied.
    2) Stress for children- The fact that homework tries kids emotionally is significant. It simultaneously “overwhelms struggling kids and removes joy for high achievers”, says one parent. “Homework for [my son] is work. At the end of a seven hour workday, he’s exhausted. But like a worker on a double shift, he has to keep going”, says another. A study published in 2002 found a direct relationship between how much time high school students spent on homework and the levels of anxiety, depression, anger, and other mood disturbances attributed with stress they experienced.
    It is hard to understand why some people advocate for homework. Do they have a child of their own? Can they really be oblivious, or indifferent, to the impact on kids: the loss of cheer, the loss of self-confidence, the loss of sleep, the loss of love for learning itself, the loss of childhood? This is the reality experienced by millions of families.
    In an intriguing study by Wendy Grolnick and her colleagues, third graders and their parents were asked to work together on a homework-like task involving the rhyme scheme of poems. The parents who had heard from the experimenter that their children would soon be tested on the skills became more controlling in their interactions. Later, each child was left alone to tackle similar assignment, and those whose parents had been warned of an evaluation ended up not doing as well. Despite their beliefs, parents’ pressure has no bearing on improved comprehension or skills. In some cases, such as this example, the opposite of the intent results.
    3) Family conflict-In a survey of more than 1,200 parents whose children ranged from kindergarteners to high school seniors, exactly half reported that they had had a serious argument with their child about homework in the past year that involved yelling or crying.
    Even when children are able to keep up, and even when we get along well with our parents, homework reshapes and directs family interactions in ways that we have learned to expect, but are troubling to consider. Leah Wingard, a linguist at the University of California-Los Angeles, videotaped thirty-two families in their homes and then pored over the results to analyze who said what to whom, when, and how. One of the first things she discovered was that when the subject of homework was brought up it was almost always done by the parent(s)-and usually within five minutes of greeting the child. “How can a relationship not be affected when one of the first things out of our mouth is, “So, do you have any homework?” It may be useful to consider what else parents might say to their children after not having seen us all day-what other comments or questions we might experience as more welcoming, more supportive, or even more intellectually engaging”. “Children orient to homework as an organizer of their time, and a gatekeeper from other activities if there is homework to complete.” A main conclusion of the research project was that there are virtually no exchanges that deal with the content of the homework. No parents asked, “So did the assignment help you to understand the topic?” or “What’s your opinion of [the issue you were working on]?” The point of homework to the family isn’t to learn. The objective is much less- to derive real pleasure from learning. It’s something to be finished. “Until the time that it is, it looms large in conversations, an unwelcome guest at the table every night”.
    4) Less time for other activities- There is less opportunity for the kind of leaning that doesn’t involve traditional academic skills. There is less opportunity to read for pleasure, make friends and socialize with them, get some exercise, get some rest, or just be a kid. Students find it hard to join our schools’ sports teams or clubs. Homework consumes the time that should be spent on alternative events. After all, homework is not a fact of life that must be accepted but a policy that can be questioned.
    5) Less interest in learning- Kids’ negative reactions to homework may generalize to school itself and even to the very idea of leaning. Educator Deborah Meier says a passion for learning “isn’t something you have to inspire [kids to have]; it’s something you have to keep from extinguishing.” Kids hate homework. We dread it, groan about, put off doing it as long as possible. It may be the single most reliable extinguisher of the flame of curiosity.
    Phil Lyons, a high school social studies/economics teacher in California, has decided to stop assigning homework altogether. He has been featured in a CBS news report-http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2007/02/27/national/main2520459.shtml. Lyons believes that “Homework basically contributes to a situation where students see learning as just an unpleasant means to an end. A way to accrue points.”
    “It simply reinforces what is already a terrible problem in American’s archaic educational system; it emphasizes reading because there will be a quiz on the reading, it mandates dozens of identical math problems because the test will contain dozens more just like the ones on the homework, and it asks students to respond to end of chapter questions like, “Which country did Napoleon invade in 1812?” All of these tasks are time-consuming, dreary, uninspiring and serve only to kill whatever motivation remains in the students.”
    Lyons immediately noticed that in the absence of homework, “students come in all the time and hand me articles about something we talked about in class or tell me about a news report they saw. When intrigued by a good lesson and given freedom [from homework], they naturally seek out more knowledge.” Because most kids find homework so unappealing, parents and teachers feel compelled to offer praise for doing it- or threaten punitive consequences for failing to do it.
    The Attitudes- Why Do It?
    There is a simple desire of parents for their children to succeed academically, accompanied by the belief that homework is a critical means to that end. Other parents simply want their children to stay busy. Some teachers complain that “parents want it”. Teachers are often confused about the quantity of homework to give. Parents always complain to teachers of too little or too much homework assigned. They send mixed signals of expectations. They complain about lost family time but also assume that too little homework reflects a lack of seriousness about academics on the part of the school. It is nearly impossible to create an equilibrium that appeases all parents.
    Some studies have shown that there is a direct correlation to students’ increasing grade level and to the diminishing exception of homework by parents. This is so presumably because more homework results in more effects on students that parents pick up on.
    With all the evidence that incriminates homework, why is it still assigned? Teachers assign homework simply because parents and administrators expect it. Educational quality is assumed to be synonymous with rigor, and rigor, in turn, is thought to be reflected by the quantity and difficulty of assignments.
    Homework and Learning Differences
    Homework is the largest, most common issue for children with ADHD. Kids with ADHD present significant problems completing their homework, thus have nightly battles with their parents. They complain about homework being boring-too boring to concentrate. ADHD afflicted students commonly do not understand instructions, and consequently require extreme amounts of help from their parents, who often do not have the time or energy to do so. They also tend to procrastinate to start projects and long term research papers, causing frustration and stress, on part of both the parents and students, as they frantically rush to meet project deadlines.
    Given the aversion kids with ADHD have to doing homework, they occasionally do not even do their homework, or lie about having homework. When the progress reports come out, parents learn about their kids’ poor or failing grades. It is also not uncommon for students with ADHD to forget to turn in the assignments they do turn in.
    Solutions
    Homework should not be assigned on a regular basis. It should be occasional, reserved for test studying and for completing unfinished class work. The idea of homework should only be harvested occasionally. The sole assignments that could and should be assigned on a semi-regular basis are reading and long term projects. Another solution, already adopted by some schools across the country, is to extend the school day. If the day were extended to 4:00 PM, by just about 45 minutes, it would result in an extra class period (in most school’s schedules) at the end of the day that could be adopted by any academic subject. The time could be used to finish uncompleted class assignments, while having the opportunity to talk with and receive help from teachers. The majority of students interviewed here at Town School favor the idea of staying at school for an extra hour than going home to do their work.

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  4. page Homework- An Unnecessary Responsibility edited Homework: An Unnecessary Responsibility Griffin H. To sort out the complaints one frequently hea…
    Homework: An Unnecessary Responsibility
    Griffin H.
    To sort out the complaints one frequently hears about homework is to identify five basic themes.
    1) A burden on parents-Gary Natriello, a professor of education at Columbia University’s Teachers College, once wrote a paper supporting the value of homework. He discussed the benefits that students attain and that the task is overall beneficial to learning. Only until his own kids went into elementary school and began to get assignments did he realize how stressful it can be for the parents. “The routine tasks sometimes carry directions that are difficult for two parents with only advanced graduate degrees to understand”, says Natriello. Many mothers and fathers return home each evening from their paid jobs only to serve as homework monitors, a position for which they never applied.
    2) Stress for children- The fact that homework tries kids emotionally is significant. It simultaneously “overwhelms struggling kids and removes joy for high achievers”, says one parent. “Homework for [my son] is work. At the end of a seven hour workday, he’s exhausted. But like a worker on a double shift, he has to keep going”, says another. A study published in 2002 found a direct relationship between how much time high school students spent on homework and the levels of anxiety, depression, anger, and other mood disturbances attributed with stress they experienced.
    It is hard to understand why some people advocate for homework. Do they have a child of their own? Can they really be oblivious, or indifferent, to the impact on kids: the loss of cheer, the loss of self-confidence, the loss of sleep, the loss of love for learning itself, the loss of childhood? This is the reality experienced by millions of families.
    In an intriguing study by Wendy Grolnick and her colleagues, third graders and their parents were asked to work together on a homework-like task involving the rhyme scheme of poems. The parents who had heard from the experimenter that their children would soon be tested on the skills became more controlling in their interactions. Later, each child was left alone to tackle similar assignment, and those whose parents had been warned of an evaluation ended up not doing as well. Despite their beliefs, parents’ pressure has no bearing on improved comprehension or skills. In some cases, such as this example, the opposite of the intent results.
    3) Family conflict-In a survey of more than 1,200 parents whose children ranged from kindergarteners to high school seniors, exactly half reported that they had had a serious argument with their child about homework in the past year that involved yelling or crying.
    Even when children are able to keep up, and even when we get along well with our parents, homework reshapes and directs family interactions in ways that we have learned to expect, but are troubling to consider. Leah Wingard, a linguist at the University of California-Los Angeles, videotaped thirty-two families in their homes and then pored over the results to analyze who said what to whom, when, and how. One of the first things she discovered was that when the subject of homework was brought up it was almost always done by the parent(s)-and usually within five minutes of greeting the child. “How can a relationship not be affected when one of the first things out of our mouth is, “So, do you have any homework?” It may be useful to consider what else parents might say to their children after not having seen us all day-what other comments or questions we might experience as more welcoming, more supportive, or even more intellectually engaging”. “Children orient to homework as an organizer of their time, and a gatekeeper from other activities if there is homework to complete.” A main conclusion of the research project was that there are virtually no exchanges that deal with the content of the homework. No parents asked, “So did the assignment help you to understand the topic?” or “What’s your opinion of [the issue you were working on]?” The point of homework to the family isn’t to learn. The objective is much less- to derive real pleasure from learning. It’s something to be finished. “Until the time that it is, it looms large in conversations, an unwelcome guest at the table every night”.
    4) Less time for other activities- There is less opportunity for the kind of leaning that doesn’t involve traditional academic skills. There is less opportunity to read for pleasure, make friends and socialize with them, get some exercise, get some rest, or just be a kid. Students find it hard to join our schools’ sports teams or clubs. Homework consumes the time that should be spent on alternative events. After all, homework is not a fact of life that must be accepted but a policy that can be questioned.
    5) Less interest in learning- Kids’ negative reactions to homework may generalize to school itself and even to the very idea of leaning. Educator Deborah Meier says a passion for learning “isn’t something you have to inspire [kids to have]; it’s something you have to keep from extinguishing.” Kids hate homework. We dread it, groan about, put off doing it as long as possible. It may be the single most reliable extinguisher of the flame of curiosity.
    Phil Lyons, a high school social studies/economics teacher in California, has decided to stop assigning homework altogether. He has been featured in a CBS news report-http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2007/02/27/national/main2520459.shtml. Lyons believes that “Homework basically contributes to a situation where students see learning as just an unpleasant means to an end. A way to accrue points.”
    “It simply reinforces what is already a terrible problem in American’s archaic educational system; it emphasizes reading because there will be a quiz on the reading, it mandates dozens of identical math problems because the test will contain dozens more just like the ones on the homework, and it asks students to respond to end of chapter questions like, “Which country did Napoleon invade in 1812?” All of these tasks are time-consuming, dreary, uninspiring and serve only to kill whatever motivation remains in the students.”
    Lyons immediately noticed that in the absence of homework, “students come in all the time and hand me articles about something we talked about in class or tell me about a news report they saw. When intrigued by a good lesson and given freedom [from homework], they naturally seek out more knowledge.” Because most kids find homework so unappealing, parents and teachers feel compelled to offer praise for doing it- or threaten punitive consequences for failing to do it.
    The Attitudes- Why Do It?
    There is a simple desire of parents for their children to succeed academically, accompanied by the belief that homework is a critical means to that end. Other parents simply want their children to stay busy. Some teachers complain that “parents want it”. Teachers are often confused about the quantity of homework to give. Parents always complain to teachers of too little or too much homework assigned. They send mixed signals of expectations. They complain about lost family time but also assume that too little homework reflects a lack of seriousness about academics on the part of the school. It is nearly impossible to create an equilibrium that appeases all parents.
    Some studies have shown that there is a direct correlation to students’ increasing grade level and to the diminishing exception of homework by parents. This is so presumably because more homework results in more effects on students that parents pick up on.
    With all the evidence that incriminates homework, why is it still assigned? Teachers assign homework simply because parents and administrators expect it. Educational quality is assumed to be synonymous with rigor, and rigor, in turn, is thought to be reflected by the quantity and difficulty of assignments.
    What is It?
    Homework. An afterschool activity assigned to develop intellectual discipline, establish proficient study habits, balance classroom workload, supplement and reinforce material in class. It is intended to serve as a link between home and school. Homework is also used to close achievement gaps between students.
    Homework is most effective when it is relevant to learning objectives, appropriate to students’ learning abilities and maturity, engaging, assigned regularly, collected, corrected and reviewed in class, assigned in reasonable and manageable amounts, has well explained directions and is supported by parents.
    Most schools implement this technique in the belief it will build long term success in academic studying and scores. In reality, it offers little more than unnecessary stress and fatigue to students, teachers and parents.
    The widespread assumption about the benefits of homework-higher achievement and the promotion of such virtues as self-discipline and responsibility-aren’t substantiated by the evidence. Evidence that declares homework as advantageous is equivocal or unsubstantiated.
    Because parents do not understand why homework is assigned and complain when too little is allocated, there is a seemingly limitless demand for books that offer help. Such books have titles like: The Homework Solution: Getting Kids to Do Their Homework; Seven Steps to Homework Success; Homework Rules and Homework Tools; Ending the Homework Hassle; How to Help Your Child with Homework; Hassle Free Homework, and so on.
    Clearly this is an issue of severe relevance to just about everyone who’s involved with children- and it’s one that leaves many feeling frustrated, confused, or even angry. But the assumption that homework should, even must, continue to be assigned despite our misgivings is rarely called into question.
    Consider this article in the November 1937 issue of Parents magazine:
    “If children are not required to learn useless and meaningless things, homework is entirely unnecessary for the learning of common school subjects. But when a school requires the amassing of many facts which have little or no significance to the child, learning is so slow and painful that is school is obliged to turn to the home for help out of the mess the school has created.”
    When schooling becomes departmentalized there is often no coordination among a student’s teachers, which means that each may assign homework without regard to how much other teachers have already given. Such poor planning for a “one hour homework policy” results in a 30-minute per class, with an average of six classes, homework spree in the evening.
    Although the chart below shows that the United States spends an average amount of time on homework, a cross-national comparison published in 2005 revealed that the United States is now “among the most homework-intensive countries in the world for 7th and 8th grade math classes.”
    The Impact
    To sort out the complaints one frequently hears about homework is to identify five basic themes.
    1) A burden on parents-Gary Natriello, a professor of education at Columbia University’s Teachers College, once wrote a paper supporting the value of homework. He discussed the benefits that students attain and that the task is overall beneficial to learning. Only until his own kids went into elementary school and began to get assignments did he realize how stressful it can be for the parents. “The routine tasks sometimes carry directions that are difficult for two parents with only advanced graduate degrees to understand”, says Natriello. Many mothers and fathers return home each evening from their paid jobs only to serve as homework monitors, a position for which they never applied.
    2) Stress for children- The fact that homework tries kids emotionally is significant. It simultaneously “overwhelms struggling kids and removes joy for high achievers”, says one parent. “Homework for [my son] is work. At the end of a seven hour workday, he’s exhausted. But like a worker on a double shift, he has to keep going”, says another. A study published in 2002 found a direct relationship between how much time high school students spent on homework and the levels of anxiety, depression, anger, and other mood disturbances attributed with stress they experienced.
    It is hard to understand why some people advocate for homework. Do they have a child of their own? Can they really be oblivious, or indifferent, to the impact on kids: the loss of cheer, the loss of self-confidence, the loss of sleep, the loss of love for learning itself, the loss of childhood? This is the reality experienced by millions of families.
    In an intriguing study by Wendy Grolnick and her colleagues, third graders and their parents were asked to work together on a homework-like task involving the rhyme scheme of poems. The parents who had heard from the experimenter that their children would soon be tested on the skills became more controlling in their interactions. Later, each child was left alone to tackle similar assignment, and those whose parents had been warned of an evaluation ended up not doing as well. Despite their beliefs, parents’ pressure has no bearing on improved comprehension or skills. In some cases, such as this example, the opposite of the intent results.
    3) Family conflict-In a survey of more than 1,200 parents whose children ranged from kindergarteners to high school seniors, exactly half reported that they had had a serious argument with their child about homework in the past year that involved yelling or crying.
    Even when children are able to keep up, and even when we get along well with our parents, homework reshapes and directs family interactions in ways that we have learned to expect, but are troubling to consider. Leah Wingard, a linguist at the University of California-Los Angeles, videotaped thirty-two families in their homes and then pored over the results to analyze who said what to whom, when, and how. One of the first things she discovered was that when the subject of homework was brought up it was almost always done by the parent(s)-and usually within five minutes of greeting the child. “How can a relationship not be affected when one of the first things out of our mouth is, “So, do you have any homework?” It may be useful to consider what else parents might say to their children after not having seen us all day-what other comments or questions we might experience as more welcoming, more supportive, or even more intellectually engaging”. “Children orient to homework as an organizer of their time, and a gatekeeper from other activities if there is homework to complete.” A main conclusion of the research project was that there are virtually no exchanges that deal with the content of the homework. No parents asked, “So did the assignment help you to understand the topic?” or “What’s your opinion of [the issue you were working on]?” The point of homework to the family isn’t to learn. The objective is much less- to derive real pleasure from learning. It’s something to be finished. “Until the time that it is, it looms large in conversations, an unwelcome guest at the table every night”.
    4) Less time for other activities- There is less opportunity for the kind of leaning that doesn’t involve traditional academic skills. There is less opportunity to read for pleasure, make friends and socialize with them, get some exercise, get some rest, or just be a kid. Students find it hard to join our schools’ sports teams or clubs. Homework consumes the time that should be spent on alternative events. After all, homework is not a fact of life that must be accepted but a policy that can be questioned.
    5) Less interest in learning- Kids’ negative reactions to homework may generalize to school itself and even to the very idea of leaning. Educator Deborah Meier says a passion for learning “isn’t something you have to inspire [kids to have]; it’s something you have to keep from extinguishing.” Kids hate homework. We dread it, groan about, put off doing it as long as possible. It may be the single most reliable extinguisher of the flame of curiosity.
    Phil Lyons, a high school social studies/economics teacher in California, has decided to stop assigning homework altogether. He has been featured in a CBS news report-http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2007/02/27/national/main2520459.shtml. Lyons believes that “Homework basically contributes to a situation where students see learning as just an unpleasant means to an end. A way to accrue points.”
    “It simply reinforces what is already a terrible problem in American’s archaic educational system; it emphasizes reading because there will be a quiz on the reading, it mandates dozens of identical math problems because the test will contain dozens more just like the ones on the homework, and it asks students to respond to end of chapter questions like, “Which country did Napoleon invade in 1812?” All of these tasks are time-consuming, dreary, uninspiring and serve only to kill whatever motivation remains in the students.”
    Lyons immediately noticed that in the absence of homework, “students come in all the time and hand me articles about something we talked about in class or tell me about a news report they saw. When intrigued by a good lesson and given freedom [from homework], they naturally seek out more knowledge.” Because most kids find homework so unappealing, parents and teachers feel compelled to offer praise for doing it- or threaten punitive consequences for failing to do it.
    The Attitudes- Why Do It?
    There is a simple desire of parents for their children to succeed academically, accompanied by the belief that homework is a critical means to that end. Other parents simply want their children to stay busy. Some teachers complain that “parents want it”. Teachers are often confused about the quantity of homework to give. Parents always complain to teachers of too little or too much homework assigned. They send mixed signals of expectations. They complain about lost family time but also assume that too little homework reflects a lack of seriousness about academics on the part of the school. It is nearly impossible to create an equilibrium that appeases all parents.
    Some studies have shown that there is a direct correlation to students’ increasing grade level and to the diminishing exception of homework by parents. This is so presumably because more homework results in more effects on students that parents pick up on.
    With all the evidence that incriminates homework, why is it still assigned? Teachers assign homework simply because parents and administrators expect it. Educational quality is assumed to be synonymous with rigor, and rigor, in turn, is thought to be reflected by the quantity and difficulty of assignments.
    Homework and Learning Differences
    Homework is the largest, most common issue for children with ADHD. Kids with ADHD present significant problems completing their homework, thus have nightly battles with their parents. They complain about homework being boring-too boring to concentrate. ADHD afflicted students commonly do not understand instructions, and consequently require extreme amounts of help from their parents, who often do not have the time or energy to do so. They also tend to procrastinate to start projects and long term research papers, causing frustration and stress, on part of both the parents and students, as they frantically rush to meet project deadlines.
    Given the aversion kids with ADHD have to doing homework, they occasionally do not even do their homework, or lie about having homework. When the progress reports come out, parents learn about their kids’ poor or failing grades. It is also not uncommon for students with ADHD to forget to turn in the assignments they do turn in.
    Solutions
    Homework should not be assigned on a regular basis. It should be occasional, reserved for test studying and for completing unfinished class work. The idea of homework should only be harvested occasionally. The sole assignments that could and should be assigned on a semi-regular basis are reading and long term projects. Another solution, already adopted by some schools across the country, is to extend the school day. If the day were extended to 4:00 PM, by just about 45 minutes, it would result in an extra class period (in most school’s schedules) at the end of the day that could be adopted by any academic subject. The time could be used to finish uncompleted class assignments, while having the opportunity to talk with and receive help from teachers. The majority of students interviewed here at Town School favor the idea of staying at school for an extra hour than going home to do their work.

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